Language attitudes towards French: A mixed-method investigation on potential Chinese immigrants in Ontario and Quebec Canada

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54475/jlt.2023.017

Keywords:

language attitudes, Chinese immigrants' group, French language, language acquisition

Abstract

This mixed-methods study aims to explore the language perceptions of Chinese individuals who live in Canada and consider immigration, specifically focusing on their attitudes towards French. The goal is to understand their attitudes towards French and, ultimately, increase policy makers’ awareness of the future maintenance of French in Canada and re-evaluating the current language teaching approach. Seventy-eight Chinese participants from Quebec or Ontario regions completed two questionnaires that were derived from the Belief about Ethnolinguistic Vitality framework, followed by a semi-structured interview conducted with sub-sampled nine participants to explore reasons behind their attitudes. In terms of analyses and results, although Quebec participants believed that French would become more commonly valued and used in the future, both Ontario and Quebec participants claimed that French would not be as essential as English, and they had more positive attitudes towards the English acquisition because of its great regional power and instrumental benefits. Additionally, a multi-regression analysis demonstrated that attitudes towards French engagement were affected by sociocultural differences and language proficiency but were not affected by educational contact (French language course). The findings of thematic analysis indicate that problems about the monolingual teaching approach led to a negative view of French lessons and even a negative attitude towards engaging with the French language. Finally, practical implications and suggestions were provided in order to enhance their attitudes towards French engagement in Canada.

Author Biography

  • Jiahang Li, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University

    Jiahang Li holds a Master of Science in Applied Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition from The University of Oxford. He is currently a language researcher and tutor at Xian Jiaotong-Liverpool University. Before joining XJTLU, He worked at University of Western Ontario in Canada. His current research areas include second language pedagogy, sociocultural theory and identity, and multilingual education.
    Email: ljhbruce@hotmail.com

References

Abdalla, A. E. (2006). Language maintenance and language shift among Arabized Malays (Makkawiyiin). International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2006(182). https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.2006.071

Abu‐Rabia, S. (1999). Attitudes and psycholinguistic aspects of first language maintenance among Russian‐Jewish immigrants in Israel. Educational Psychology, 19(2), 133–148. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144341990190202

Adamuti-Trache, M. (2012). Language acquisition among adult immigrants in Canada. Adult Education Quarterly, 63(2), 103–126. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741713612442804

Ajibade, Y., & Ndububa, K. (2008). Effects of word games, culturally relevant songs, and stories on students’ motivation in a Nigerian English language class. TESL Canada Journal, 26(1), 27. https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v26i1.128

Allard, R., & Landry, R. (1986). Subjective ethnolinguistic vitality viewed as a belief system. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 7, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1986.9994226

Allard, R., & Landry, R. (1987). Croyances envers la vitalité ethnolinguistique et comportement langagier des francophones en milieu minoritaire. In R. Théberge & J. Lafontant (Eds.), Demain la francophonie en milieu minoritaire (pp. 15–41). Winnipeg: Centre de Recherche du Collège de Saint-Boniface.

Allard, R., & Landry, R. (1992). Ethnolinguistic vitality beliefs and language maintenance and loss. Maintenance and loss of minority languages, 1, 171-195. https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.1.14all

Amireault, V. (2019). Integration process and identity redefinition of Chinese adult learners of French as a second language in Quebec. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 19(6), 365–378. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2019.1676159

Andrade, H. L. (2019). A critical review of research on student self-assessment. Frontiers in education, 4. https://doi.org/10.3389/feduc.2019.00087

Atkinson, D., Eton Churchill, Takako Nishino, & Hanako Okada. (2007). Alignment and interaction in a socio-cognitive approach to second language acquisition. The Modern Language Journal, 91(2), 169-188. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2007.00539.x

Bachman, L. F., & Palmer, A. S. (1982). The construct validation of some components of communicative proficiency. TESOL quarterly, 16(4), 449-465. https://doi.org/10.2307/3586464

Baker, C. (2011). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. Multilingual Matters.

Baker, W. (2018). English as a lingua franca and intercultural communication. In J. Jenkins, W. Baker, & M. Dewey (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca (pp. 25–36). Routledge https://doi.org/10.3726/b14386

Bai, L. (2006). Graduate unemployment: Dilemmas and challenges in China’s move to mass higher education. The China Quarterly, 185, 128-144. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0305741006000087

Blommaert, J. (2013). The sociolinguistics of globalization. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511845307

Bourhis, R.Y., Giles, H. & Rosenthal, D. (1981) Notes on the Construction of a ‘subjective vitality questionnaire’ for Ethnolinguistic Groups. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 2(2), 145-155. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1981.9994047

Bourhis, R. Y., & Sachdev, I. (1984). Vitality perceptions and language attitudes: Some Canadian data. Journal of language and Social Psychology, 3(2), 97-126. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x8400300202

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Breckler, S. J. (1984). Empirical validation of affect, behavior, and cognition as distinct components of attitude. Journal of personality and social psychology, 47(6), 1191. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.47.6.1191

Brown, H. D. (1994). Teaching by principles. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Brown, A. (2021). Monolingual versus multilingual foreign language teaching: French and Arabic at beginning levels. Language Teaching Research, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168821990347

Butler, Y. G. (2004). What level of english proficiency do elementary school teachers need to attain to teach EFL? case studies from Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. TESOL Quarterly, 38(2), 245-278. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588380

Cargile, A. C., Giles, H., Ryan, E. B., & Bradac, J. J. (1994). Language attitudes as a social process: A conceptual model and new directions. Language & Communication, 14(3), 211-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/0271-5309(94)90001-9

Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of com-municative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied linguistics, 1(1), 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/i.1.1

Clément, R., Noels, K.A. & Deneault, B. (2001). Interethnic contact, identity, and psychological adjustment: The mediating and moderating roles of communication. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 557–579. https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00229

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research Methods in Education (7th ed.). Routledge.

Corcoll, C. (2013). Developing children’s language awareness: Switching codes in the language classroom. International Journal of Multilingualism, 10(1), 27-45. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2011.628023

Cooper, R. L. (1984). Review of Life with Two Languages: An Introduction to Bilingualism, by F. Grosjean. Language, 60(3), 633–636. https://doi.org/10.2307/414002

Coupland, N. (2007). Style: Language variation and identity. Cambridge University Press.

Cziko, G. A., Lambert, W. E. (1976). A French-English school exchange program: Feasibility and effects on attitudes and motivation. Canadian Modern Language Review 32, 236-242. https://doi.org/10.3138/cmlr.32.3.236

Cummins, J. (2014). To what extent are Canadian second language policies evidence-based? Reflections on the intersections of research and policy. Frontiers in Psychology, 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00358

Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1(1), 16-29. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989x.1.1.16

Dewi, U. P., & Setiadi, C. J. (2018). Language Attitude and Language Choice in Bilingual Academic Learning Environment. Lingua Cultura, 12(4), 369. https://doi.org/10.21512/lc.v12i4.4288

Dörnyei, Z. (2001). Teaching and Researching Motivation. https://doi.org/10.1604/9780582382381

Dörnyei, Z. (2003). Attitudes, orientations, and motivations in language learning: Advances in theory, research, and applications. Language Learning, 53, 3-32. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.53222

Dörnyei, Z., & Csizér, K. (2005). The effects of intercultural contact and tourism on language attitudes and language learning motivation. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24(4), 327–357. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x05281424

Dörnyei, Z., Csizér, K., Németh, N., Csizér, K., & Németh, N. (2006). Motivation, Language Attitudes and Globalisation: A Hungarian Perspective. https://doi.org/10.1604/9781853598876

Dragojevic, M., Berglund, C., & Blauvelt, T. K. (2018). Figuring out who’s who: The role of social categorization in the language attitudes process. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 37 (1), 28–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X17706942

Eisinga, R., Grotenhuis, M. T., & Pelzer, B. (2012, October 23). The reliability of a two-item scale: Pearson, Cronbach, or Spearman-Brown? International Journal of Public Health, 58(4), 637–642. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-012-0416-3

Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance (Vol. 2). Stanford university press.

Fishman, J. (2002). Endangered minority languages: Prospects for sociolinguistic research. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 4(2), 270-275. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2020.1753907

Frauenglass, M. H., & Diaz, R. M. (1985, March). Self-regulatory functions of children’s private speech: A critical analysis of recent challenges to Vygotsky’s theory. Developmental Psychology, 21(2), 357–364. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.21.2.357

Galante, A. (2020). “The moment I realized I am plurilingual”: Plurilingual tasks for creative representations in EAP at a Canadian university. Applied Linguistics Review, 11(4), 551-580. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2018-0116

Galloway, N., & Rose, H. (2014). Using listening journals to raise awareness of global Englishes in ELT. ELT Journal, 68(4), 386–396. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccu021

Galloway, N. (2017). Global Englishes and Change in English Language Teaching: Attitudes and Impact (1st ed.). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315158983

Gardner, R.C. (1979) Social psychological aspects of second language acquisition. In H. Giles and R. St. Clair (eds), Language and Social Psychology. Basil Blackwell.

Gardner, R., & MacIntyre, P. (1991). An instrumental motivation in language study: Who says it isn’t effective? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 13(1), 57-72. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263100009724

Garrett, P. (2010). Fundamentals of language attitudes. In Attitudes to Language (Key Topics in Sociolinguistics, pp. 19-36). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511844713

Gardner, R. C., Masgoret, A. M., Tennant, J., & Mihic, L. (2004). Integrative motivation: Changes during a year-long intermediate-level language course. Language Learning, 54(1), 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2004.00247.x

García, O., & Li, W. (2014). Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2015.1046883

Gardner, R.C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. Edward Arnold

Crookall, D. (1987). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes and motivation. System, 15(2), 236–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/0346-251x(87)90081-9

Gardner, R., Lalonde, R., & Pierson, R. (1983). The socio-educational model of second language acquisition: An investigation using Lisrel causal modeling. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 2(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x8300200101

Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. https://doi.org/10.1604/9780912066097

Gass, R. H., & Seiter, J. S. (2018). Persuasion: Social influence and compliance gaining.

Gillham, B. (2000). Research interview. A&C Black.

Giles, H., Bourhis, R. Y., & Taylor, D. (1977). Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In H. Giles (Ed.), Language, Ethnicity and Intergroup Relations (pp. 307-348). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2010.12016

Giles, H., & Johnson, P. (1987). Ethnolinguistic identity theory: A social psychological approach to language maintenance. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 1987(68), 69-100. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1987.68.69

Giles, H., Taylor, D. M., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1977). Dimensions of welsh identity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 7(2), 165–174. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420070205

Giles, H., Rosenthal, D., & Young, L. (1985,). Perceived ethnolinguistic vitality: The Anglo‐ and Greek‐Australian setting. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 6(3–4), 253–269. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1985.9994206

Gogonas, N., & Michail, D. (2014,). Ethnolinguistic vitality, language use and social integration amongst Albanian immigrants in Greece. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 36(2), 198–211. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.2014.909444

Giles, H., Coupland, J., & Coupland, N. (1991). Contexts of accommodation: Developments in applied sociolinguistics. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511663673

Giles, H., Taylor, D., & Bourhis, R. (1973). Towards a theory of interpersonal accommodation through language: Some Canadian data. Language in Society, 2(2), 177-192. https://doi:10.1017/S0047404500000701

Government of Canada. (2021). Profile of the Francophone population in Ontario. https://www.ontario.ca/page/profile-francophone-population-ontario-2016

Grenier, G. (2019). Quebec’s language policy and economic globalization. Language Problems and Language Planning, 43(2), 179–197. https://doi.org/10.1075/lplp.00041.gre

Hamers, J. F., & Blanc, M. (1982). Towards a social-psychological model of bilingual development. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 1(1), 29-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x8200100103

Harmon-Jones, E., & Mills, J. (2019). An introduction to cognitive dissonance theory and an overview of current perspectives on the theory. Cognitive Dissonance: Reexamining a Pivotal Theory in Psychology (2nd Ed.)., 3–24. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000135-001

Harwood, J., Giles, H., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1994). The genesis of vitality theory: Historical patterns and discoursal dimensions. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 108(1). https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1994.108.167

Hashemi, M. R., & Babaii, E. (2013). Mixed methods research: Toward new research designs in applied linguistics. Modern Language Journal, 97(4), 828–852. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2013.12049.x

Hofman, J. E., & Zak, I. (1969). Interpersonal Contact and Attitude Change in a Cross-Cultural Situation. The Journal of Social Psychology, 78(2), 165–171. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1969.9922354

Hofstede, G. (1984). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values (Vol. 5). sage. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030030208

Holliday, A. (2009). Language and Intercultural Communication The role of culture in English language education: Key challenges. Language and Intercultural Communication, 9(3), 144–155. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708470902748814

Hong, Y. C., & Ganapathy, M. (2017). To investigate ESL students’ instrumental and integrative motivation towards English language learning in a Chinese school in Penang: case study. English Language Teaching, 10(9). https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n9p17

Housen, A., & Simoens, H. (2016). Introduction: Cognitive perspectives on difficulty and complexity in L2 acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38(2), 163-175. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263116000176

Hudson, R. A. (1996). Sociolinguistics (2d ed.). Cambridge University Press

Hildebrandt, N., & Giles, H. (1983). The Japanese as subordinate group: Ethnolinguistic identity theory in a foreign language context. Anthropological Linguistics, 25, 436-466.

Kuncha, R. M., & Bathula, H. (2004). The role of attitudes in language shift and language maintenance in a new immigrant community: A case study. Artikel, tidak diterbitkan.

Jenkins, J. (2009). English as a lingua franca: Interpretations and attitudes. World Englishes, 28(2), 200–207. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971x.2009.01582.x

Jenkins, J. (2015). Repositioning English and multilingualism in English as a. Englishes in Practice, 2(3), 49–85. https://doi.org/10.1515/eip-2015-0003

Jenkins, J., Cogo, A., & Dewey, M. (2011). Review of developments in research into English as a lingua franca. Language Teaching, 44(3), 281–315. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444811000115

Jones, I. E. (2006). The effect of motivation on second-language acquisition: Integrative motivation and instrumental motivation (Order No. 3227683). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304910766). Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/effect-motivation-on-second-language-acquisition/docview/304910766/se-2?accountid=13042

Johnson, B. (2012). Motivation and attitudes toward learning French in the university’s foreign language classroom. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.

Joppke, C. (2007). Beyond national models: Civic integration policies for immigrants in Western Europe. West European Politics, 30(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402380601019613

Kato, F. (2016). Enhancing integrative motivation: The Japanese-American collaborative learning project. Cogent Education, 3(1), 1142361. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186x.2016.1142361

Kandel, W., & Massey, D. S. (2002, March 1). The culture of Mexican migration: A theoretical and empirical analysis. Social Forces, 80(3), 981–1004. https://doi.org/10.1353/sof.2002.0009

Keshavarz, M. (2014). A comparative study of metacognitive awareness of reading strategies among monolingual and bilingual Iranian EFL learners. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 5(4). https://doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.5n.4p.25

Kircher, R. (2014). Thirty years after bill 101: A contemporary perspective on attitudes towards English and French in Montreal. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 17(1), 20–50. Retrieved from https://journals.lib.unb.ca/index.php/CJAL/article/view/21582

Kline, R.B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling by rex b. Kline. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 19(3), 509–512. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2012.687667

Kraemer, R. (1992). Ethnolinguistic vitality perceptions in Israel in the wake of the Intifada. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 13(6), 487–503. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434632.1992.9994511

Kormos, J., Csizér, K., & Sarkadi, G. (2009, July). The language learning experiences of students with dyslexia: Lessons from an interview study. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 3(2), 115–130. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501220802638306

Kreitler, H., & Kreitler, S. (1982). The theory of cognitive orientation: Widening the scope of behavior prediction. In Progress in experimental personality research (Vol. 11, pp. 101-169). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-541411-1.50009-0

Kroskrity, P.V. (2016). Language ideologies and language attitudes. Oxford Bibliographies. https://doi.org/10.1093/OBO/9780199772810-0122

Kurtoglu-Hooton, N., & Wright, S. (2006). Language maintenance: The case of a Turkish speaking community in Birmingham. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2006(181), 43-56. https://doi.org/10.1515/IJSL.2006.050

Ladegaard, H.J. (2000). Language attitudes and sociolinguistic behaviour: Exploring attitude-behaviour relations in language. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 4(2), 214- 233. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9481.00112

Landry, R., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1997). Linguistic landscape and ethnolinguistic vitality: An empirical study. Journal of language and social psychology, 16(1), 23-49. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927x970161002

Lantolf, J. P. (1994). Sociocultural theory and second language learning: Introduction to the special issue. The Modern Language Journal, 78(4), 418–420. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1994.tb02058.x

Laufer, B., & Hadar, L. (1997). Assessing the effectiveness of monolingual, bilingual, and “Bilingualized” dictionaries in the comprehension and production of new words. The Modern Language Journal, 81(2), 189–196. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.1997.tb01174.x

Lasagabaster, D. (2017). Language learning motivation and language attitudes in multilingual spain from an international perspective. The Modern Language Journal, 101, 583-596. https://doi.org/10.1111/modl.12414

Littlewood, W. (2001). Students’ attitudes to classroom English learning: A cross-cultural study. Language Teaching Research, 5(1), 3–28. https://doi.org/10.1191/136216801671946568

Ma, F. (2015). Ethnolinguistic vitality, language attitudes and language education in Tibetan schools in Qinghai. In Trilingualism in Education in China: Models and Challenges (pp. 103-115). Springer, Dordrecht.

MacIntyre, P. D., & Blackie, R. A. (2012). Action control, motivated strategies, and integrative motivation as predictors of language learning affect and the intention to continue learning French. System, 40(4), 533-543. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2012.10.014

MacLennan, H. (2005). Two solitudes. The Modern Language Journal, 29(5), 424. https://doi.org/10.2307/318183

Mady, C., & Arnett, K. (2015). French as a second language teacher candidates’ conceptions of allophone students and students with learning difficulties. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 18(2), 78-95. https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2016.1184330

Makalela, L. (2015). Moving out of linguistic boxes: The effects of translanguaging strategies for multilingual classrooms. Language and Education, 29(3), 200–217. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500782.2014.994524

Macaro, E., Lee, J.H. (2013). Teacher language background, codeswitching, and English-only instruction: Does age make a difference to learners’ attitudes? TESOL Quarterly, 47, 717–742. https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.74

Masgoret, A. M., & Gardner, R. C. (2003). Attitudes, motivation, and second language learning: A meta-analysis of studies conducted by Gardner and associates. Language Learning, 53(S1), 167–210. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00227

Mertens, D. M. (2007). Transformative paradigm. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(3), 212–225. https://doi.org/10.1177/1558689807302811

Mintu, A.T. (1992). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16(4), 455. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(92)90033-q

Miekus, A. (2021). Quebec Experience Program: Knowledge of French for spouses now required. CIC News. https://www.cicnews.com/2021/07/quebec-experience-program-knowledge-of-french-for-spouses-now-required-0718673.html#gs.8k9106

Norton, B., & Toohey, K. (2001). Changing perspectives on good language learners. TESOL Quarterly, 35(2), 307-322. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587650

Oakes, L., & Warren, J. (2007). Language, citizenship and identity in Quebec. Journal of French Language Studies, 19(1), 145–147. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0959269508003669

Ostrom, T. M. (1969). The relationship between the affective, behavioral, and cognitive components of attitude. Journal of experimental social psychology, 5(1), 12-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(69)90003-1

Otheguy, R., García, O., & Reid, W. (2015). Clarifying translanguaging and deconstructing named languages: A perspective from linguistics. Applied Linguistics Review, 6(3), 281–307. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2015-0014

Oxford, R. L. (2016). Teaching and researching language learning strategies: Self-Regulation in context. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315719146

Park, S. M., & Sarkar, M. (2007). Parents’ attitudes toward heritage language maintenance for their children and their efforts to help their children maintain the heritage language: A case study of Korean-Canadian immigrants. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 20(3), 223–235. https://doi.org/10.2167/lcc337.0

Pauwels, A. (2005). Maintaining the community language in Australia: challenges and roles for families. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 8(2–3), 124–131. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050508668601

Pagé, M., & Lamarre, P. (2010). L’intégration linguistique des immigrants au Québec. Montreal, Canada: Institut de recherche en politiques publiques.

Pagé, M., & Olivier, C.-É. (2012). Importance et priorité du français pour la population québécoise : Une étude exploratoire. Quebec, Canada: Conseil supérieur de la langue française.

Peng, C. Y. (2020). The effects of media exposure and language attitudes on grammaticality judgments. Global Chinese, 6(1), 69–95. https://doi.org/10.1515/glochi-2020-0003

Pettigrew, T. F. (1998). Intergroup contact theory. Annual review of psychology, 49(1), 65-85. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.65

Pinsonneault, A., & Kraemer, K. (1993). Survey research methodology in management information systems: An assessment. Journal of Management Information Systems, 10(2), 75–105. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.1993.11518001

Portes, A. (2002). English-only Triumphs, but the costs are high. Contexts, 1(1), 10–15. https://doi.org/10.1525/ctx.2002.1.1.10

Poynting, S., & Mason, V. (2008). The new integrationism, the state and Islamophobia: Retreat from multiculturalism in Australia. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 36(4), 230–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJLCJ.2008.08.001

Riestra, M. A., & Johnson, C. E. (1964). Changes in attitudes of elementary-school pupils toward foreign-speaking peoples resulting from the study of a foreign language. The Journal of Experimental Education, 33(1), 65-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.1964.11010856

Rose, H., McKinley, J., & Baffoe-Djan, J. B. (2019). Data collection research methods in applied linguistics. Bloomsbury Academic.

Rose, H., & Galloway, N. (2019). Global Englishes for language teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Ryan, E. B., Giles, H., & Sebastian, R. J. (1982) An integrative perspective for the study of attitudes toward language variation.” In Attitudes towards Language Variation. Social and Applied Contexts, ed. by E. B. Ryan and H. Giles, 1–19. Edward Arnold. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-8251-5_7

Schoonen, R. (2006). Book review: Second language research: methodology and design. Language Teaching Research, 10(3), 351–355. https://doi.org/10.1191/1362168806lr201xx

Silverman, S. (2021). Economic Immigration to Canada. The Canadian Encyclopedia. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/immigrant-labour

Simon, J. (2021). Bill 96, An Act respecting French, the official and common language of Québec. Assemblée Nationale Du Québec. http://assnat.qc.ca/en/travaux-parlementaires/projets-loi/projet-loi-96-42-1.html

Smith, J. R., & Hogg, M. A. (2008). Social identity and attitudes. In W. Crano & R. Prislin (Eds.), Attitudes and attitude change (pp. 337-360). Psychology Press.

Spolsky, B. (1989). Conditions for second language learning: Introduction to a general theory. https://doi.org/10.1604/9780194370639

St-Laurent, N. (2008). Le français et les jeunes. Quebec, Canada: Conseil supérieur de la langue française

Storch, N., & Wigglesworth, G. (2003). Is there a role for the use of the l1 in an l2 setting? TESOL Quarterly, 37(4), 760. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588224

Stubbs, M. (1997). Language and the mediation of experience: Linguistic representation and cognitive orientation. The handbook of sociolinguistics, 358-373. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781405166256.ch22

Suek, L. A. (2014). The influence of language use and language attitude on the maintenance of community languages spoken by migrant students. Englisia: Journal of Language, Education, and Humanities, 1(2). https://doi.org/10.22373/ej.v1i2.190

Syed, Z. (2003). The sociocultural context of English language teaching in the gulf. TESOL Quarterly, 37(2), 337. https://doi.org/10.2307/3588508

Syrbe, M., & Rose, H. (2018). An evaluation of the global orientation of English textbooks in Germany. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 12(2), 152–163. https://doi.org/10.1080/17501229.2015.1120736

Tajfel, H. (1974). Social identity and intergroup behaviour. Social Science Information, 13(2), 65–93. https://doi.org/10.1177/053901847401300204

Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (2004). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In J. T. Jost & J. Sidanius (Eds.), Political psychology: Key readings (pp. 276–293). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203505984-16

Tajfel, H. (1982). Social psychology of intergroup relations. Annual review of psychology, 33(1), 1-39. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.33.020182.000245

Thordardottir, E.T., Weismer, S.E., & Smith, M.E. (1997). Vocabulary learning in bilingual and monolingual clinical intervention. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 13(3), 215-227. https://doi.org/10.1177/026565909701300301

Tönsing, K. M., & Soto, G. (2020). Multilingualism and augmentative and alternative communication: examining language ideology and resulting practices. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 36(3), 190-201. https://doi.org/10.1080/07434618.2020.1811761

Trudgill, P. and Giles, H. (1978). Sociolinguistics and linguistic value judgements: Correctness, adequacy and aesthetics. In F. Coppieters and D. L. Goyvaerts (eds.) Functional Studies in Language and Literature. Ghent: E. Story-Scientia. pp. 167-190.

Trudgill, P. (1986). Dialect in Contact. Basil Blackwell.

Vaismoradi, M., Turunen, H., & Bondas, T. (2013). Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study. Nursing & health sciences, 15(3), 398-405. https://doi.org/10.1111/nhs.12048

Varrella, S. (2021). Number of immigrants in Canada 2000–2020. Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/443063/number-of-immigrants-in-canada/

Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge MIT Press.

Vygotsky, L. S., & Rieber, R. W. (Ed.). (1999). Cognition and language. The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky, Vol. 6. Scientific legacy. (M. J. Hall, Trans.). Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Warden, C.A. & Lin, H.J. (2000). Existence of integrative motivation in an Asian EFL setting. Foreign Language Annals, 33(5), 535-545. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2000.tb01997.x

Wei, M. (2007). The interrelatedness of affective factors in EFL learning: An examination of motivational patterns in relation to anxiety in China. TESL–EJ, 11(1), 1-23. Retrieved from http://tesl-ej.org/ej41/a2.pdf

Wertsch, J. V. (1985). Vygotsky and the social formation of mind. Harvard university press.

West, R. L., & Turner, L. H. (2013). Introducing communication theory: Analysis and application.

Li, W. (2018). Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied linguistics, 39(1), 9-30. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amx044

Wicklund, R. A., & Brehm, J. W. (1976). Perspectives on cognitive dissonance. Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203767672

Yagmur, K. (2009). Language use and ethnolinguistic vitality of Turkish compared with the Dutch in the Netherlands. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 30(3), 219-233. https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630802369445

Yang, R. P. J., Noels, K. A., & Saumure, K. D. (2006). Multiple routes to cross-cultural adaptation for international students: Mapping the paths between self-construals, English language confidence, and adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(4), 487-506. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.11.010

Yeoh, B. S. A., & Willis, K. (2005). Singaporean and British transmigrants in China and the cultural politics of contact zones. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(2), 269–285. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183042000339927

Yu, S. C. (2015). The relationships among heritage language proficiency, ethnic identity, and self-esteem. FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.18275/fire201502021039

Published

2023-07-27

Issue

Section

Original Research

How to Cite

Li, J. (2023). Language attitudes towards French: A mixed-method investigation on potential Chinese immigrants in Ontario and Quebec Canada. Journal of Language Teaching, 3(7), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.54475/jlt.2023.017

Similar Articles

1-10 of 56

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 > >>