Improving persuasive speaking skills using a student-developed template in an online learning environment




online persuasive speaking, student-developed rhetorical template


Effective persuasive speaking is requisite for successful academic, professional, and social life (Nippold, 2007, in Heilmann et al. 2020). However, there is dearth in literature that recommends an effective rhetorical structure that addresses the most pressing and recurring needs of non-native English public speakers – communication apprehension (Bastida & Yapo, 2019) and problems in organizing and outlining ideas in the speech (Lee & Liang, 2012). This explanatory sequential mixed-methods study investigated the effect of a student-developed persuasive speaking template taught in an online class to the persuasive speaking skills of non-native English speakers in a secondary school. Results showed a significant improvement in the participants’ persuasive speaking skills before and after they were trained to use the student-developed template as manifested by their careful word choice, formulation of engaging introduction, effective vocal expression and paralanguage, connection with the audience, and lessened communication apprehension. In addition, it was found out that no significant correlation between the online learning environment and the improved skills. The research results revealed that the student-developed template, direct skills instruction, time for research and practice, and teacher’s guidance helped improve skills and could form part of an alternative rhetorical pedagogy.

Author Biography

  • Daniel A. Mabini, National Educators Academy of the Philippines

    Daniel A. Mabini is a Senior Education Program Specialist at the National Educators Academy of the Philippines. He graduated from the University of the Philippines Diliman with a Master of Arts in Education degree specializing in Language Education. His research interests include language education intervention studies and teacher professional development.


Al-Issa, A. (2007). English language teaching at the College of Law–Muscat, Sultanate of Oman: Analyzing needs and understanding problems. Asian Journal of English Language Teaching, 17, 65–86.

Al‐Issa, A. S., & Al‐qubtan, R. (2010). Taking the floor: Oral presentations in EFL classrooms. TESOL Journal, 1(2), 227-246.

Bankowski, E. (2010). Developing skills for effective academic presentations in EAP. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 22(2), 187-196. ERIC.

Bastida, Jr. E. I. & Yapo, J. R. (2019). Factors contributing to oral communication apprehension among selected senior high school students in Santa Rosa City, Laguna, and Philippines. Asia Pacific Journal of Contemporary Education and Communication Technology, 5(2), 10-20.

Briggs, D. L. & Proszek, J. (2015). Chapter 11 Persuasive Speeches. In Introduction to Oral Communication Workbook (pp. 51-61).

Brooks, G., & Wilson, J. (2014). Using oral presentations to improve students’ English language skills. Kwansei Gakuin University Humanities Review, 19(1), 199-212.

Brundage, S.B., Hancock, A.B., Stone, M.D., Zeigler, M.T. (2010). Public speaking attitudes: Does curriculum make a difference? Journal of Voice. 24(3), 302-307.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J.D. (2018). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, 5th Edition. Sage Publications, Inc.

Del Villar, C. P. (2010). Beginning Filipino students’ attributions about oral communication anxiety. Journal Media and Communication Studies, 2(7), 159-169.

DepEd Order No. 012, s. 2020 (19 June 2020) Adoption of the Basic Education Learning Continuity Plan for School Year 2020-2021 in Light of the COVID-19 Public Health Emergency.

Dwyer, K. K. & Davidson, M. M. (2012). Is public speaking really more feared than death? Communication Research Reports, 29(2), 99-107.

Enriquez, M. A. S. (2014). Students’ perceptions on the effectiveness of the use of Edmodo as a supplementary tool for learning. In DLSU Research Congress, 2(6), 1-6.

Farabi, M., Hassanvand, S., Gorijan, B. (2017). Using guided oral presentation in teaching English language learners’ speaking skills. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Learning, 3(1), 17-24.

Gallagher, J.R. (2015). The rhetorical template. Computers and composition. ScienceDirect.

Haugen, J. & Lucas, K. (2019) Unify and present: Using Monroe's Motivated Sequence to teach team presentation skills, Communication Teacher, 33(2) 112-116.

Heilmann, J., Malone, T.O., Westerveld, M.F. (2020). Properties of spoken persuasive language samples from typically developing adolescents. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. Retrieved from

Herbein, E., Golle, J., Tibus, M., Schiefer, J., Trautwein, U., & Zettler, I. (2018). Fostering elementary school children's public speaking skills: A randomized controlled trial. Learning and Instruction, 55, 158–168.

Ibrahim, A.H. & Yusoff, Z.S. (2012). Teaching public Speaking in a Blended Learning Environment. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 2(6), 573-576.

Kassim, H., Abdullah, A., Osman, N. (2015). Creative strategy: A pilot evaluation of a hypothetical learning model through public speaking performance. ICEEPSY 2014. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 171, 919-928.

Kelsen, B.A. (2019) Exploring public speaking anxiety and personal disposition in EFL presentations. Learning and Individual Difference, 73, 92-101.

Laerd Statistics (2018). Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test using SPSS Statistics.

Lata, P. & Luhach, S. (2014). An exploratory investigation of online forum mediated collaborative learning of speech writing: A case study. I-manager’s Journal on English Language Teaching, 4(1), pp. 19-28.

Lee, Y. J. & Liang, J.C. (2012) Using video technology to diagnose EFL students’ cognitive learning difficulties in public speaking. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Science, 64, 671-680.

Leopold, L. (2016). Honing EAP learners’ public speaking skills by analyzing TED Talks. TESL Canada Journal, 33(2), 46-58.

Mahoney, L. M., Lawton, B., Foeman, A. (2017). Measuring the impact of course modality on student knowledge, performance, and communication apprehension in public speaking pedagogy. Media Watch, 8(1), 7-19.

Manan, N. A. B., Alias, A. A., Pandian, A. (2012). Utilizing social networking website as an ESL pedagogical tool in a blended learning environment: An exploratory study. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education, 2(1).

McCroskey, J.C. (2013) Personal report of public speaking anxiety (PRPSA). Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science.

Micciche, T., Pryor, B. & Butler, J. (2000). A test of Monroe's Motivated Sequence for its effects on ratings of message, organization, and attitude change.

Mortaji, L.E. (2018). Effects of sustained impromptu speaking and goal setting on public speaking competency development: A case study of EFL college students in Morocco. English Language Teaching, 11(2), 82-98.

Mundy, M. A., Oviedo, A. P., Ramirez, J., Taylor, N., & Flores, I. (2014). Impact of technology-based instruction on speech competency and presentation confidence levels of Hispanic college students. Research in Higher Education Journal, 24.

Nadia, Z. (2013). The use of students’ oral presentations in enhancing speaking skill in the English language classrooms. Biskra University.

Nikitina, A. (2011). Successful public speaking. Academic Transfer.

Paradewari, D.S. (2017). Investigating students’ self-efficacy of public speaking. International Journal of Education and Research. 5(10). 97-108.

Parviz, J. (2019). How to survive a zombie apocalypse: Using Monroe’s Motivated Sequence to persuade in a public-speaking classroom, Communication Teacher, 34(1), 40-46.

Pearson, J.C. (2010). Preparation meeting opportunity: How do college students prepare for public speeches. Communication Quarterly, 54(3).

Platt, C. A., Raile, N. A. W., & Yu, N. (2014). Virtually the same? Student perceptions of the equivalence of online classes to face-to-face classes. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 10(3), 489-503.

Procopio, C. (2011). Using Youtube TM to promote curricular awareness and persuasive skills in the basic communication course. Communication Teacher, 25(1).

Pudewa, A. (2016, April 01). The 5 Canons of Rhetoric. Memoria Press.

Quagliata, A. B. (2014) Move your audience to action: Using YouTube to teach persuasion, Communication Teacher, 28(3), 183-187.

Rodrigues, P. D. & Vethamani, M. E. (2015). The impact of online learning in the development of speaking skills. Journal of Interdisciplinary Research in Education, 5(1), 43-67.

Santoso, D.R., Taufiq, W., & Liansari, V. (2018). Implementing ‘Organize Your Speech’ posted in social media to improve students’ ability in public speaking. International Seminar on English Language Teaching and Research 2018.

Schnell, J. (2015). Using the Persuasive Speech Development Model in the Basic Communication Course. The Forensic of Phi Kappa Delta, 100, 45-48.

Tsou, W., & Huang, Y. (2012). The effect of explicit instruction in formulaic sequences on academic speech fluency. Taiwan International ESP Journal, 4(2), 57-80.

Tuan, N. H., & Mai, T. N. (2015). Factors affecting students’ speaking performance at LE Thanh Hien High School. Asian Journal of Educational Research, 3(2), 8-23.

Westwick, J. N., Hunter, K. L., Haleta, L. L. (2015). Shaking in their digital boots: Anxiety and competence in the online basic public speaking course. Basic Communication Course Annual, 27 (10).

Wolverton, C. C. & Tanner, J. (2019). Teaching public speaking to business students in the digital age: Updating our methods. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 15(3), 22-33.






Original Research

How to Cite

Mabini, D. A. (2023). Improving persuasive speaking skills using a student-developed template in an online learning environment. Journal of Language Teaching, 3(5), 12-22.

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 > >>